Sejam bem-vindos e bem-vindas ao segundo episódio da nossa nova série de podcasts, o Fluency News! Aqui, você vai treinar a sua escuta e ficar por dentro do que está acontecendo no mundo, sempre com as três principais notícias da semana, tudo em inglês! Ao longo do episódio, nós também adicionamos explicações em português das coisas que achamos que precisam de mais atenção, assim você não perde nenhum detalhe!
Esta semana, falamos sobre o navio japonês que se partiu nas Ilhas Maurício, os protestos na Bielorrússia e os incêndios que assolam a Floresta Amazônica. Continue lendo para ter acesso a uma seção de expansão de vocabulário para maximizar o seu aprendizado!
E, pra conferir a aula do Rhavi sobre Present Perfect, que o Scott cita no podcast, é só clicar aqui!
Em português, não há uma estrutura verbal equivalente ao present perfect, que é formado por pessoa + have ou has + verbo principal no particípio + complemento da frase.
Esse tempo verbal pode ser usado em três situações diferentes.
1. Algo que começou no tempo passado e ainda está acontecendo no tempo presente.
Veja este exemplo: I have worked at this school since 1998.
Nesta frase, estamos dizendo: “Eu trabalho nesta escola desde 1998”. O fato de começar a trabalhar na escola em 1998 indica algo ocorrido no passado, mas o sujeito ainda não saiu da empresa - ou seja, aquilo ainda está acontecendo no tempo presente.
2. A segunda situação em que utilizamos o present perfect é quando algo aconteceu em um determinado período de tempo e o efeito disso ainda pode ser sentido hoje. Confira estes dois exemplos abaixo:
You have changed so much since we married. (Você mudou tanto desde que nos casamos.)
I have had ten meetings this month. (Tive dez reuniões este mês.)
Na primeira frase, vimos um exemplo de algo que aconteceu com o decorrer do tempo (desde que casamos), e cujo efeito ainda pode ser sentido atualmente (você mudou tanto). Já no segundo exemplo, a indicação é de que a pessoa teve reuniões, mas de que o mês ainda não acabou - ou seja, ela terá mais.
3. A outra situação na qual utilizamos o present perfect é quando algo aconteceu no passado, mas a data não importa.
O único detalhe para a aplicação desse tempo verbal nesses casos é ter em mente que o fato acontecido no passado precisa ou ser muito marcante ou ainda poder ser sentido no tempo presente. Você só não poderá utilizar o present perfect para isso quando indicar datas exatas, como anos.
Exemplo: I have been to New York. (Eu já estive em Nova Iorque).
A viagem aconteceu no passado e foi um fato marcante para mim, por isso, posso utilizar o present perfect.
1) Marque a alternativa correta. “Mark is on vacation. He’s _________ to Spain.”
2) Qual das traduções é a correta para a frase: “Você já visitou o museu?”?
a) Did you visit the museum?
b) Do you already visit the museum?
c) Are you visit the museum?
d) Have you visited the museum yet?
3) Qual das opções abaixo é a correta para completar a frase: “Foo Fighters ________ in Brazil a few times”?
b) Has played
c) Have played
1) A alternativa correta é D, “He’s gone to Spain” (“O Mark está de férias. Ele foi para a Espanha”). Usamos o “gone” e a estrutura do present perfect para dizer que ele foi, não especificando quando, e que ainda não voltou. Para montarmos uma frase no present perfect, usamos: Pronome + have/has + verbo no particípio.
2) Para perguntar se alguém já fez algo sem especificar quando, usamos a estrutura do present perfect. Já para montar uma pergunta com o present perfect, usamos Have/Has + pronome + verbo no particípio.
3) “Quantas vezes o Foo Fighters já tocou no Brasil?”. A resposta correta é a letra C! Foo Fighters have played in Brazil a few times. (Os Foo Fighters tocaram no Brasil algumas vezes.) Nesse caso, usamos o present perfect para falar sobre algo que aconteceu e não especificamos quando. A banda é considerada pronome no plural e, por essa razão, a letra C é a correta.
What is up, guys! I’m Scott Lowe and welcome back to the second episode of Fluency Academy’s Fluency News, your latest podcast series for training your English and keeping yourself an informed citizen of the world ! Presented by me, Scott! professor da Fluency Academy, americano de corpo brasileiro de alma. The first episode last week was a huge success ! Thanks / Cheers to everyone who visited fluencytv.com to check out the extra material that accompanies the episodes, we had a HUGE response to the first episode, and have already added in some of your feedback and suggestions to this today’s recording! And We really hope that you’ll love it.
Today we’ll present you 3 of the week's biggest news stories, 99% in English, for you to train your listening, with a few quick explanations in Portuguese here and there in parts that we think deserve special attention! Today’s first story revolves around the Japanese ship that is threatening the pristine waters off Mauritius. A grounded Japanese-owned ship that leaked tonnes of oil near protected areas off the Indian Ocean island nation of Mauritius has split apart, with remaining fuel spreading into the turquoise waters. The bulk carrier struck a coral reef off Mauritius on July 25 and its hull began to crack after days of pounding waves. Some 1,000 tonnes of fuel began to leak on August 6, threatening a protected marine park boasting mangrove forests and endangered species.
Last week, photos posted on social media by the official clean-up showed the MV Wakashio in two pieces. Oil barriers were in place and a skimmer ship was nearby. Mauritius declared an environmental emergency last week, and salvage crews raced against the clock to pump the remaining 3,000 tonnes of oil off the ship as environmental groups warned the damage to coral reefs and once-pristine coastal areas could be irreversible.
As of Saturday, about 90 tonnes of oil remained on board, much of it residue from the leakage. International experts and thousands of local volunteers were making frantic efforts on Sunday to protect Mauritius’s pristine beaches and rich marine wildlife. Some scientists have called it the country’s worst ecological disaster. The MV Wakashio, which ran aground almost three weeks ago, split in half on Saturday afternoon as Mauritian authorities said poor sea conditions made the removal of the remaining oil on the ship risky.
The Panama-flagged vessel was travelling empty from China to Brazil but with more than 4,000 tonnes of heavy fuel oil, lubricants and diesel on board. Between 800 and 1,200 tonnes was thought to have leaked into the sea, with the rest being pumped out by salvage experts. Scientists say the full impact of the spill is still unclear, but the oil has already reached exceptional zones of marine life, including the Ile aux Aigrettes nature reserve and the Blue Bay Marine Park, a unique coastal wetland recognised for the diversity of its coral and fish species, as well as for the endangered green turtle.
Satellite images also show contamination spreading northward along the coastline. “This oil spill occurred in one of, if not the most, sensitive areas in Mauritius,” Vassen Kauppaymuthoo, and oceanographer and environmental engineer, told Reuters by telephone from the island, where he was surveying the disaster. “We are talking of decades to recover from this damage, and some of it may never recover.”
The wildlife at risk include the seagrasses blanketing sand in the shallow waters, clownfish darting around coral reefs, mangrove trees corralling the coastline with their tangled root systems and the critically endangered pink pigeon, endemic to the island. Giant tortoises live in a nature reserve on the Ile aux Aigrettes, where there is also a scientific research station.
The spill brings “a massive poisonous shock to the system,” said Adam Moolna, an environmental scientist from Mauritius who lectures at Keele University in the UK. “This oil will have cascading effects across the webs of life.” Thousands of volunteers, many smeared from head to toe in black sludge, ignored official instructions to stay away and strung together miles of improvised floating barriers made of straw in a desperate attempt to hold back the oily tide.
“We have had to fully equip our front line staff … Many people have been wading into the oil spilled waters with only thongs and wearing shorts and it is extremely dangerous. A couple of hours exposed to fumes can cause headaches, nose and eye burns and even dizziness,” said Jean Hugues Gardenne, of the Mauritian Wildlife Foundation (MWF), an independent NGO. Booms made of sugar-cane leaves, plastic bottles and hair, which people have been voluntarily cutting off, have been floated on the sea to prevent the oil spill spreading, said Romina Tello, an island resident.
“Hair absorbs oil, but not water,” Tello, founder of Mauritius Conscious, an eco-tourism agency, said. Mauritius shut its borders on March 19th and has had only 344 cases of Covid-19, of which 332 have recovered and 10 have died. The country is still closed to international air travel. In May, the central bank said that in the past two months alone, the nation had lost 12bn rupees in foreign exchange due to the fall in tourism.
The disaster comes after years of work to restore the natural wildlife and plants on the affected coastline. “The conservation work carried out on Ile aux Aigrettes for nearly four decades is at stake,” said Gardenne.
“The impact of this spill will definitely be felt for a much longer time to come. The local communities relying on fishing to earn a living are heavily affected … Mangroves, corals and the marine ecosystem are affected and the impact on tourism, a pillar of our economy, will be huge.”
There was anger at the government’s slow response. Within days of the wreck, activists found dead eels, starfish, seabirds and crabs coated with oil but the prime minister, Pravind Jugnauth, only declared a state of emergency on Friday.
Members of the crew have reportedly told police that the 58-year-old captain of the carrier was celebrating a birthday party onboard and was not on the bridge at the time of the collision. Local coastguards made several attempts to contact the ship before it ran aground on July 25th.
Conservationists were also anxious about oil washing into mangrove forests, where roots serve as nurseries for fish. Oil also could sink into sediments around mangroves, where it could smother molluscs, crabs and fish larvae. Birds nesting in the mangroves, or migrating via nearby mudflats, are also vulnerable. Ingesting oil can make it hard for birds to fight disease or even to fly. Corals are likely to be damaged when the heavier particles in the oil settle on them.
The owners of the carrier have said they are “deeply conscious of [their] responsibility as a party directly involved in the case”.
“Regarding compensation, we plan to deal with the issue sincerely based on applicable laws,” said Kiyoaki Nagashiki, president of Nagashiki Shipping, the head of the Okayama-based company, in a statement released on Thursday.
The carrier was to be loaded with iron ore in the Brazilian port of Tubarao, so was not carrying any commercial cargo, only fuel to run its engines. Experts say this underlines the potential damage that might be done by a similar wreck of a tanker carrying up to 230,000 tonnes of oil.
No começo dessa história, eu usei a estrutura “has split”. Essa estrutura é parte do Present Perfect, que é usado principalmente quando estamos falando de algo que começou no passado, mas continua ou tem impacto no presente. No geral usamos o Present Perfect para ações que ainda não terminaram ou então estão em um tempo que ainda não se encerrou. Usamos também o Present Perfect quando temos indicações de tempo como: JUST, EVER, NEVER, YET, ALREADY, SINCE e FOR. Essa estrutura é formada pelo verbo “have” e o particípio passado do verbo que segue. No caso do exemplo usado, “has split”, estamos usando o particípio passado do verbo “split”. Não existe um tempo verbal equivalente no português, então essa estrutura pode ser um pouco confusa para brasileiros. Na descrição deste episódio, em fluencytv.com, você pode ver exemplos desse tempo verbal sendo utilizado.
Você também pode testar o seu conhecimento! Além disso, o Rhavi deu uma aula COMPLETA sobre o present perfect. Você acha o link na descrição também. Só visitar fluencytv.com.
Let’s move on to our second story!
Now we move to Belarus, a small European Nation that borders Russia and Poland, and has been going through some intense unrest this past week.
After the longtime president of Belarus, Aleksandr G. Lukashenko, (I hope I pronounced that right) claimed 80 percent of the vote in what many Western governments said was a sham election in August, protesters across the country have continued to turn out in droves, only to be met with a fierce police crackdown as the government tries to maintain its grip on power.
Violent clashes, which included the police spraying tear gas and making thousands of arrests, have given way to smaller demonstrations, as some protesters became fearful of police violence. But other protesters have turned more aggressive, at times throwing stones at officers. Thousands of protesters are believed to have been detained, and videos of civilians being beaten by the police continue to emerge, potentially further galvanizing public anger.
One week after the Aug. 9 vote, tens of thousands of protesters — some estimates put the crowd at 200,000 — filled the center of the capital, Minsk, possibly the largest protest in the country’s history, and a sign of the growing pressure on Mr. Lukashenko to step down. But he shows no sign of doing so, even turning to President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia for help.
As the political crisis continues in Belarus, an Eastern European nation of 9.5 million people, many opponents of Mr. Lukashenko insist they will fight on.
Minutes after President Aleksandr G. Lukashenko of Belarus vowed to stand firm against protesters he reviled as “rats,” “trash” and “bandits,” antigovernment demonstrators staged their biggest protest yet on Sunday to oppose a fraud-tainted presidential election a week earlier.
Tens of thousands of protesters — some estimates put their number at well over 200,000 — turned out in the center of Minsk, the capital, dwarfing a rally of Mr. Lukashenko’s supporters earlier in the day.
It appeared to be the largest protest in the history of Belarus, a former Soviet republic that Mr. Lukashenko has led since 1994.
As the crowd gathered around a Soviet-era obelisk on Victors Avenue, many chanted for Mr. Lukashenko to leave and waved the traditional white and red flag, which became a symbol of the opposition after the president replaced it with a more Soviet-looking national flag soon after coming to power.
The protest had a festive air, in stark contrast to the tense moods of far smaller rallies last week that were violently suppressed by security forces, leaving at least two people dead, many injured and more than 6,000 under arrest.
For the first time, Belarusians were allowed to walk freely in the city center, wrapped in opposition flags and chanting anti government slogans. After gathering near the obelisk, they walked toward the main square, blocking traffic on the capital’s main avenue. Only one week ago, a group of clapping people on a sidewalk would have been violently dispersed by the riot police. On Sunday, the police were nowhere to be seen.
Many protesters said they turned out because they did not expect to be violently dispersed. Others said they came because they were shocked to learn that protesters had been tortured after being detained at previous rallies.
“These events united everybody,” said Olga V. Golovanova, an economist. “We have woken up to the fact that we want to be free, we want to be human,” she added. “The government believed that they are gods and we are nothing.”
Indeed, in a speech to supporters shortly before city streets filled with people demanding that he step down, Mr. Lukashenko equated his own fate with that of the nation, saying, “If you destroy Lukashenko, it will be the beginning of the end for you.”
Protesters relished the opportunity to speak their minds freely. They took selfies in front of the main security service building, still called the K.G.B. in Belarus, something that was unimaginable just days ago.
“I haven’t seen anything like this before,” said Vladislav A. Ianovich, 18, a computer science student standing wrapped in a European Union flag. “I think we need to repeat such rallies several times and the country will change. It has already changed.”
For some, however, the opposition’s euphoria seemed premature given that Mr. Lukashenko is still in power.
“This is not the end yet,” said Sergei, 57, a teacher at a state-run institution. He said he feared giving his last name because he wanted to protect his students. “It will all depend on what factory workers will do,” he said.
The protest came in response to a call for a “March for Freedom” by Svetlana Tikhanovskaya, the main opposition candidate in the presidential election. She joined the race after the arrest of her husband, Sergei Tikhanovsky, a popular blogger who had planned to run as a candidate. Ms. Tikhanovskaya, who says she won the election, was forced to leave Belarus for neighboring Lithuania early last week.
Denouncing his foes as traitors “controlled by puppeteers, by outsiders,” Mr. Lukashenko, a 65-year-old former state farm director who is often called Europe’s last dictator, warned that “even if they calm down now, they will again crawl out of their holes like rats after a while.”
His claims of a military buildup by the American-led military alliance followed a pledge by President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia that Moscow would support Belarus if it faced an outside military threat. He and Mr. Lukashenko spoke by telephone on Saturday and again on Sunday.
In a statement issued on Sunday, the Kremlin said that Russia stood ready “to provide the necessary assistance to resolve the problems that have arisen” and referred to a collective security treaty signed in the early 1990s by Russia, Belarus and seven other former Soviet states. The treaty stipulates that aggression against one member of the alliance amounts to an attack on all of them.
Mr. Lukashenko seems to have calculated that he can best secure Russian help against his domestic opponents by ginning up a fake military crisis on the border. The Belarusian Defense Ministry said on Sunday that it would hold military exercises near its western border from Monday through Thursday.
NATO’s spokeswoman, Oana Lungescu, said the alliance “is closely monitoring the situation in Belarus,” but added that “there is no NATO buildup in the region.”
Just weeks ago, Mr. Lukashenko was accusing Russia of plotting to overthrow him. But facing the biggest political challenge of his 26-year tenure, he made a U-turn, the latest in many over the years by the highly erratic president, and now looks to Moscow as his best hope of survival.
In a sign of growing disenchantment among even government employees, the Belarusian ambassador to Slovakia, Igor Leshchenya, posted a video on YouTube on Sunday expressing support for the protesters. “Like all Belarusians,” he said, “I am shocked by accounts of torture and beating against my fellow citizens.”
Even state-run factories — once solid bastions of support for Mr. Lukashenko — have tilted toward the opposition, with strikes gathering steam late last week at a number of state-owned industrial enterprises, including a tractor factory in Minsk.
Internet access and mobile phone service were largely shut down, much of the center of Minsk was cordoned off, and the police said they had detained thousands of demonstrators. Many protesters were injured, along with dozens of officers, and at least one protester died when an explosive device detonated in his hand, according to officials.
The police in the southwestern city of Brest fired live rounds at protesters, injuring one, according to the Belarusian Interior Ministry.
Ms. Tikhanovskaya left the country after the election, appearing in cryptic video messages that appeared to be filmed under duress. Two of her associates said the Belarusian authorities had pressured her to leave for Lithuania.
Mass arrests and violence appeared to be geared at scaring people off the streets, but protests against Mr. Lukashenko continued across the country.
The United Nations condemned the police violence. Michelle Bachelet, the United Nations High Commissioner for human rights, said in a statement that the number of arrests indicated a “clear violation of international human rights standards.”
“People have the right to speak up and express dissent, even more in the context of elections, when democratic freedoms should be upheld, not suppressed,” she said.
Nessa história eu usei o verbo “denounce” algumas vezes. Você sabe o significado dessa palavra? Ela se parece bastante com o verbo “denunciar”, em português, e esse é um dos significados em inglês também! “Denounce” também significa declarar publicamente algo incorreto ou mau, informar contra. O verbo vem do latim “dar informação oficial”, e apesar de o significado ter mudado um pouco, a ideia geral permanece. Em poucas palavras, “denounce” significa “criticar algo ou alguém veementemente e publicamente”. No caso da nossa história, significa tanto “denunciar” quanto “criticar” e “expor”.
And now we move to our last story of the day. Brazil experiences the worst start to the Amazon fire season for 10 years.
Over 10,000 blazes have been seen so far in August, with response of President Bolsonaro condemned as ineffective.
The Amazon has seen the worst start to the fire season in a decade, with 10,136 fires spotted in the first 10 days of August, a 17% rise on last year.
Analysis of Brazilian government figures by Greenpeace showed fires increasing by 81% in federal reserves compared with the same period last year. Coming a year after soaring Amazon fires caused an international crisis, the new figures raised fears this year’s fire season could be even worse than last year’s.
“This is the direct result of this government’s lack of an environment policy,” said Romulo Batista, senior forest campaigner for Greenpeace Brasil. “We had more fires than last year.”
The numbers are likely to add to the rising sense of alarm among business leaders and investors over the negative impact caused by the ongoing destruction of Brazil’s Amazon forest.
“It is a very worrying situation. Clearly, the government’s environmental policy on the Amazon issue is not working,” Candido Bacher, the CEO of Brazil’s biggest bank, Itaú Unibanco, said on Wednesday.
In July the government banned fires for 120 days in the Amazon and Pantanal regions, where fires are also raging. On Tuesday Brazil’s far-right president, Jair Bolsonaro, falsely claimed reports of rising numbers of Amazon fires were “a lie”.
His administration has been unable to control rising fires and deforestation despite an expensive army operation launched in May. Called Operation Green Brasil 2 and headed by vice-president General Hamilton Mourão, it involves thousands of soldiers, and according to the defence ministry has so far seized 28,100 cubic metres of wood and handed out more than 4 million reais worth of fines.
A year ago Bolsonaro sought to blame Leonardo DiCaprio and NGOs for fires despite providing no evidence – and sacked the head of INPE. On Tuesday, during a meeting of Amazon countries, he made more incorrect claims.
“This story that the Amazon is going up in flames is a lie and we must combat it with true numbers,” Bolsonaro said, according to Reuters, which published photos of forest devastated by fire in Apuí municipality in Amazonas state.
Fires in the Amazon dry season are mainly caused by people either clearing land, or burning felled trees or forest from which valuable woods have already been removed, Batista said.
Much of that land becomes cattle pasture, responsible for 80% of deforestation in all Amazon countries. Greenpeace analysis showed that among the Amazon municipalities worst-hit by fires in the first 10 days of August were some of the region’s most important cattle producing areas. Last year the Guardian and the Bureau of Investigative Journalism reported that Amazon fires were 30% more likely in beef farming zones.
Brazil’s meat industry is coming under increasing pressure to stop cattle from illegally deforested Amazon areas from contaminating supply chains. Its biggest companies said they have made huge progress in monitoring in recent years and are developing new strategies to improve it.
On Wednesday, Candido Bracher from Itaú Unibanco said the bank would not finance meat companies linked to deforestation. “We want to guarantee the industry won’t be supplied by meat from herds raised in deforested areas,” he told the Estado de São Paulo newspaper. “We will do this by tracing.”
Itaú Unibanco is part of the Brazilian Business Council for Sustainable Development (CEBDS), which has held meetings with Mourão, supreme court judges and Congress leaders to demand action to protect the Amazon, while avoiding confronting the anti-environmentalist stance of key government figures who have disputed climate change science.
“This is not an ideological issue,” said its president, Marina Grossi. “When you do not have a clear policy on this you compromise these companies. You lose value and the country loses.”
Para quem está aprendendo inglês, sendo falante nativo de português ou não, algumas palavras são mais difíceis de pronunciar do que outras. As palavras “environment”, que significa “meio ambiente”, e “environmental”, que significa “ambiental” ou “do meio ambiente”, podem ser mais difíceis de falar. Então eu quero que você repita comigo, para aperfeiçoar a sua pronúncia. ENVIRONMENT
Ok, before we end today’s episode, I want to leave you with some good news! The world might seem dark, bleak and messy right now, but there is always good news and good things happening.
The world’s first 3D printed neighborhood is being built in Mexico! In rural Tabasco, Mexico, a community of 50 3D printed homes is now under construction.
The U.S.-based nonprofit New Story has teamed up with the tech company ICON to build the world’s first 3D printed neighborhood. It’s part of their project working to combat global homelessness.
Brett Hagler, the company’s CEO and co-founder, says a machine that’s on an X-Y axis will ooze proprietary cement mix out of a nozzle.
“It looks almost like soft-serve ice cream,” he says.
The machine starts at the very bottom of the home, layering the cement all the way to top where a roof is then placed. Start to finish, the entire process takes just 24 hours to print.
The company hires local workers to do the necessary labor, Hagler says. The 3D technology and automation makes building homes faster, but workers are still required to attach the roof and doors, and install plumbing.
“We bring in the technology to make it faster, cheaper and ultimately a better product,” he says, “and then be able to have local labor to add on the other components that are necessary.”
Each 3D printed home will have two bedrooms, a living room, kitchen and bathroom. Each home can withstand hurricanes and are seismic-approved in case of an earthquake, Hagler says. Being strong enough to stand against natural disasters has a “generational impact,” he says, because families can pass the home down from generation to generation.
Now that’s what I call an uplifting, wholesome story. By the way, “uplifting” significa “inspirador”, “inspiradora”, e “wholesome” significa “boa”, “sadia”.
Isn’t that a good way to end this episode? And with that, we’re done! As always, you can find the sources to all our stories in the description of this episode or on fluencytv.com. Be sure to check out fluencytv for more free content, tune back in to hear the main stories around the world, and get some snippets of explanations to expand your knowledge and practice your listening skills. On our website, fluencytv.com, you can see more explanations and some exercises, to test yourself and make sure you understood everything from today's podcast. I’m Scott Lowe and I’ll see you next episode. Peace out.
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